1. Section 97.1 -- Ham Radio is a "...voluntary noncommercial communication service", and provides, "emergency communications". Hams "contribute to the advancement of the radio art" with the help of these rules (?!). Hams Help train operators, technicians, and electronics experts and enhance international goodwill.
2. Section 97.3 -- Definitions
3. Section 97.5 -- Station license required
(a) A licenced ham has control of the transmitting equipment. NOTE: It is within the law to receive anything you can receive provided that you don't use it to commit a crime or profit from it.
(b) Types of station licenses - when you get the peice of paper in the mail, it's really 2 licenses in 1: A station license (for your home location) and an operator's license (for your person).
operator or primary station license
club station license -- has a ham for a trustee
military recreation station license -- The "Military Affiliate Radio System" or MARS is volunteer hams who provide health and welfare communications for overseas stationed US military. Each branch of the military has its own MARS.
Hams can operate from one another's homes.
Other Countries' hams can operate here if we've a treatee with them, and visa-versa.
4. Section 97.7 Control operator required -- While transmitting, every transmitter must have a Control Operator (who is a ham) in charge to be certain the rules are being followed.
5. Section 97.9 Operator license grant
(a) The License Classes are: Novice, Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced, and Amateur Extra. But 97.17(a) says no new Novice and Advanced licenses will be issued.
(b) If you've just passed a test to upgrade your licence and you can see the upgrade on the FCC's website, you can start using the higher class license privileges.
6. Section 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft
(a) Operations onboard must be approved by the master of the ship or pilot of the aircraft
(b) The station must be separate from ... all other radio apparatus installed on the ship or aircraft and mustn't make interference. But a common antenna is okay.
(c) The station shouldn't be a hazard to the safety of life or property (?!) So I guess this means that when NOT operating aboard a ship or aircraft, it's okay for hams to be a hazard to life or property, huh?!
7. Section 97.13 -- Restrictions on station location
(a) There are some places of environmental importance or that that are significant in American history where there are particular restrictions.
(b) If you're within a mile of an FCC monitoring station, you have to take steps to not interfere with them, because if there wasn't a rule about that, the general rule that you should strive to not interfere with other people wouldn't apply to FCC monitoring station, right?
(c) Insure that your station doesn't allow exposure to RF electromagnetic field levels that are too high. Yes, there'll have to be a show about that. I haven't written that yet.
8. Section 97.15 -- Station antenna structures
(a) If you're near an airport and your antenna is over 200 ft high, the FAA would like a word with you.
(b) State and local regulation of a station antenna structure must not preclude amateur service communications. Rather, it must reasonably accommodate such communications and must constitute the minimum practicable regulation to accomplish the state or local authority's legitimate purpose. We're trying to get this for HOA rules, too.
9. Section 97.17 -- Application for new license grant
(a) No new Novice and Advanced licenses will be issued
(b) How to ask for a license
1. A Volunteer Examiner asks for a bunch of info from you.
(d) As of 2014 Valentine's day, a trustee can only be for 1 club at a time.
10. Section 97.19 -- Application for a vanity call sign
(a) As of 2014 Valentine's day, only individual hams can get a vanity callsign; not clubs.
(b) filed in accordance with
(c) Unassigned vanity callsigns are available with the following exceptions
1. You can't take a dead person's license until they've been dead 2 years. Unless your related to them. Or they were a member of your club and gave you permission before they died.
2. If the FCC cancelled someone's callsign, you can't have it for 2 years.
11. Section 97.21 -- Application for a modified or renewed license grant
(a) If you have a license and you pass the test for another license class or change your address, you've got to tell the FCC.
(b) If your license expires, you still have 2 years to renew, not a moment longer. You can't operate after your license is expired until you get a new one.
(c) You'll probably get to keep your callsign.
12. Section 97.23 -- Mailing address; you gotta have one
13. Section 97.25 -- License terms are 10 years, renewable if not expired
14. Section 97.27 -- FCC modification of station license grant.
(a) The FCC can modify your license if it thinks this will "promote the public interest, convenience, and necessity".
(b) The FCC can modify your license if it thinks this will "promote fuller compliance with the provisions of the Communications Act of 1934" or any other treatee.
(c) If this happens, they'll let you know. They'll try to give you 30 days' notice if there isn't a pressing reason not to. You can probably appeal. Unless you can't.
15. Section 97.29 -- Replacement license grant document; If you loose your license you can ask for a new one.
16. Section 97.31 -- Cancellation on account of the licensee's death. The FCC discriminates against the deceased. Let that be a lesson to us all; Don't Die, or you can't be a ham operator anymore. You must notify the FCC after you've died so they can cancel your license as of the moment of your death. Or they might find out some other way.
(a) Unless we say otherwise, just use good sense and good engineering practices.
(b) Choose a good channel to talk on. No frequency will be assigned for the exclusive use of any station.
(c) Give priority over to those communicating during an emergency. This does NOT mean that training drills and exercises can take priority over people just chatting.
(d) Don't Interfere on purpose.
2. Section 97.103 Station licensee responsibilities
(a) If it's your hamshack, you're responsible. If another ham is using it, you both are.
(b) The person who licensed the station is probably the control operator in charge. Unless you write down in your log that somebody else is.
(c) FCC Representatives can ask to see your station and your station logbook.
3. Section 97.105 Control operator duties
(a) Whoever is currently at the transmitter controls must make sure everything's working right.
(b) Whoever is currently at the transmitter controls, their license controls where they can transmit.
4. Section 97.107 Reciprocal operating authority
Hams from other countries (with whom the USA has treatees to this effect) can operate here or use your station. If they do, they have no more than the operator privileges of a USA Amateur Extra Class licensee.
The FCC keeps a list of those countries.
The FCC might change it's mind from time to time about this
5. Section 97.109 Station control -- Your hamshack must have knobs and switches and things and you have to be there to flip them or if you've arranged all the knobs and things to work remotely someplace else, you have to be there instead. If an FCC Regional Director says your not doing it right, Be able to turn it off right away, no matter where you are or where it is.
6. Section 97.111 Authorized transmissions
(a) You can communicate with
(1) Other hams in this country and countries that allow their hams to talk with you
(2) Other hams to facilitate relief actions
(3) Anybody licensed by the FCC in any radio service during emergencies
(4) Government stations for RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Services)
(5) Army, Navy and Air Force Military Affiliate Radio System members ("MARS")
(b) You can broadcast (without expecting a reply)
(1) breifly, to make adjustments
(2) call CQ (to look for somebody to talk to)
(3) to Remotely control gizmos you've set up
(4) whatever's needed in an emergency
(5) Morse Code Practice
(6) information bulletins
(7) telemetry from some automated gizmo you've set up
7. Section 97.113 Prohibited transmissions
(a) Don't transmit
(1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this part;
(2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules;
(3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary interest, including communications on behalf of an employer, with the following exceptions:
If your employer is participating in an emergency preparedness drill or exercise.
You can buy and sell ham gear as long as you don't do it as a business.
If you're running a ham station for classroom instruction in a school.
If you're the ARRL. I guess it pays to have lobbiests.
(4) Music, (unless you're on a space station, then it's okay), to facilitate crime, obscene or indecent words or language; or false or deceptive messages, signals or identification. So you can't sing that you're me to provide an alabi. Oh, and you shouldn't say, "Damn".
(5) Regularly scheduled communications which can be done over another radio service?!
(b) No broadcasting nor program production or news gathering for broadcasting, unless there's an emergency
(c) Don't retransmit other transmissions, except if you're on a space station listening to music; that's okay/.
(d) Only an auxiliary, repeater, or space station can retransmit what other hams send
8. Section 97.115 Third party communications
(a) You can transmit messages on behalf of a 3rd party,
(1) to hams in the USA
(2) to hams in countries that say it's okay
(b) The third party may participate in stating the message where
(1) The control operator (that's You!) is in charge
(2) The third party didn't used to be a ham whose license was revoked or suspended and not reinstated
(c) No automatic retransmissions of 3rd party traffic except by RTTY or data emission
(d) After a 3rd party communication outside the USA, you have to give both callsigns
9. Section 97.117 International communications -- Transmissions to a different country, where permitted, shall be limited to communications incidental to the purposes of the amateur service and to remarks of a personal character -- so no talking with Turks about how lame the Turkish priminister might be!
10. Section 97.119 Station identification
(a) You have to send or say your callsign at the end of every conversation and every 10 minutes along the way
(b) You have to send your callsign:
(1) less than or equal to 20 WPM when in CW
(2) only in English if talking, phonetics are okay
(3) in RTTY if your sending that way
(4) according to section 73.682(a) of the FCC Rules if your sending images
(c) You can follow your callsign with a slash '/' if there some reason to do so, but you can't use that to make your callsign seem like it's from another country
(d) You can use a special events station callsign if you're at a special event, and you should also give that callsign once every hour if you are
(e) If you go to your friend's house and you're an extra and you're transmitting on extra class frequencies but she's just a general, then you have to give her callsign after yours
(f) If you've upgraded your license and seen it online but your new license hasn't yet arrived, then you have to say or send your callsign with a suffix, as follows:
Upgrading from Novice to Technical Class: "/KT"
Upgrading from Technician to General Class: "/AG"
Upgrading from Technician, General, or Advanced to Amateur Extra Class: "/AE"
(g) If you're outside the USA, you have to give your callsign followed by the country code and approx location from which you're operating. It even says so here in the rules.
11. Section 97.121 Restricted operation
(a) If your ham transmissions interfere with somebody's broadcast receiver (AM, FM or TV) and their equipment works okay, then you have to not transmit with the mode, power and at the frequency to interfere with them during the hours from 8 p.m. to 10:30 p.m., local time, and on Sunday for the additional period from 10:30 a.m. until 1 p.m., local time.
(b) If the FCC investigates you for interference, you should do what they say.
1. Section 97.201 Auxiliary station -- 97.3a(7) says Auxiliary station is an amateur station, other than in a message forwarding system, that is transmitting communications point-to-point within a system of cooperating amateur stations.
(a) Novices cannot license an Auxiliary station. But they no longer exist, so who cares?
(b) Auxiliary stations can transmit on 2m and high frequencies (shorter wavelengths) except the 144.0-144.5 MHz, 145.8-146.0 MHz, 219-220 MHz, 222.00-222.15 MHz, 431-433 MHz, and 435-438 MHz segments
(c) If an auxiliary station interferes with another and they're both frequency coordinated, then they're both responsible for fixing it. If only 1 is, then the other is responsible for fixing the interference.
(d) An auxiliary station may be automatically controlled
(e) An auxiliary station may transmit one-way communications.
2. Section 97.203 Beacon station -- 97.3a(9) says a Beacon station is an amateur station transmitting communications for the purposes of observation of propagation and reception or other related experimental activities.
(a) Novices cannot operate a beacon station. Remember, there aren't any Novices anymore.
(b) A beacon can only transmit on 1 channel per band per location
(c) Must be less than or equal to 100 watts
(d) A beacon can only be automatically controlled if it transmits on the 28.20-28.30 MHz, 50.06-50.08 MHz, 144.275-144.300 MHz, 222.05-222.06 MHz or 432.300-432.400 MHz segments, or on the 33 cm and shorter wavelength bands.
(e) In Green Bank, West Virginia is the National Radio Quiet Zone created in 1958. If you put up a beacon there, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory would like a word with you. Let'em know if you change power output or frequency or pick your nose too loudly nearby.
(f) Turn off your beacon if an FCC Regional Director tells you to.
(g) A beacon may transmit one-way communications
3. Section 97.205 Repeater station -- 97.3a(40) says a Repeater is an amateur station that simultaneously retransmits the transmission of another amateur station on a different channel or channels.
(a) A repeater has to have a control operator and that person can't be a Novice.
(b) A repeater may receive and retransmit only on the 10 m and shorter wavelength frequency bands except the 28.0-29.5 MHz, 50.0-51.0 MHz, 144.0-144.5 MHz, 145.5-146.0 MHz, 222.00-222.15 MHz, 431.0-433.0 Mhz, and 435.0-438.0 Mhz segments.
(c) If your repeater interferes with mine and we're both frequency coordinated, we share the responsibility for fixing the problem. But if your repeaters is coordinated and mine isn't, then it's all my responsibility to fix it.
(d) A repeater may be automatically controlled
(e) Ancillary functions accessed on the normal input frequency are not considered remote control. It's okay to allow only your friends to use a repeater.
(f) [Reserved] WTF!?
(g) If somebody sends illegal transmissions through the repeater, it isn't the control operator's fault.
(h) If your repeater operates near the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and you want to change the frequency or output power or antenna or something, they'd probably like to have a word with you.
4. Section 97.207 Space station: An amateur station located more than 50 km above the Earth's surface (according to 97.3a(41))
(a) Any ham can operate a space station
(b) If you pass out in outer space, somebody has to be able to shut down your station if the FCC asks.
(c) Space stations can only operate:
The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m, and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm bands; and
(d) It's perfectly legal for a space station to have other radios on in the background, even music.
(e) It's okay to send one way communication
(f) Space telemetry transmissions can be coded messages or telecommands or whatever
(g) If you intend to operate a space station, the FCC would like a few words with you
5. Section 97.209 Earth station -- An amateur station located on, or within 50 km of, the Earth's surface intended for communications with space stations or with other Earth stations by means of one or more other objects in space. 97.3a(16)
(a) Any Ham can be an Earth Station
(b) Earth States can only transmit in these band segments
The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m, and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm bands; and
The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438 MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments
6. Section 97.211 Space telecommand station -- An amateur station that transmits communications to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a space station. 97.3a(45)
(a) Any Ham picked by the operator of a Space Station can be a telecommand station
(b) The commands can be encrypted
(c) Telecommand stations can operate in these band segments
The 17 m, 15 m, 12 m and 10 m bands, 6 mm, 4 mm, 2 mm and 1 mm bands, and
The 7.0-7.1 MHz, 14.00-14.25 MHz, 144-146 MHz, 435-438 MHz, 1260-1270 MHz and 2400-2450 MHz, 3.40-3.41 GHz, 5.65-5.67 GHz, 10.45-10.50 GHz and 24.00-24.05 GHz segments
(d) It's okay to transmit one way, not expecting a reply.
7. Section 97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station. These conditions must be met:
(a) You have to be able to control it, either using another radio (auxiliary station) or a wire or fiber optic or connection via another radio service.
(b) If something goes wrong with your remote control aparatus, the station must shut itself down after no more than 3 minutes
(c) There's some protection against unauthorized transmissions
(d) A copy of your license and a note with your name, address, and telephone number and that of at least one other person autorized by you and able to control the station must be posted in a conspicuous place at the station location
8. Section 97.215 Telecommand of model craft. An amateur station transmitting signals to control a model craft may be operated as follows
(a) The transmitter is labelled with your callsign, name and address
(b) The control signals must be unencrypted and not intended to be obscured
(c) The transmitter can output only 1 watt maximum
9. Section 97.217 Telemetry. Telemetry transmitted by an amateur station on or within 50 km of the Earth's surface is not considered to be codes or ciphers intended to obscure the meaning of communications.
10. Section 97.219 Message forwarding system.
(a) Any ham station can forward messages, as long as you stay within the bounderies of your license
(b) If a message violates the rules, the originating station's responsible
(c) If you forward a message which violates the rules, you're not responsible, but you do have to be able to turn it off once you notice
(d) The originating station of a message must either be able to identify from where the message originally came or be responsible for its contents, fcc-rules-wise.
11. Section 97.221 An Automatically controlled digital station is one in which control of a station when it is transmitting is in compliance with the FCC Rules without you there to watch it
(a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station
(b) A station may be automatically controlled while transmitting a RTTY or data emission on the 6 m or shorter wavelength bands, and on the 28.120-28.189 MHz, 24.925-24.930 MHz, 21.090-21.100 MHz, 18.105-18.110 MHz, 14.0950-14.0995 MHz, 14.1005-14.112 MHz, 10.140-10.150 MHz, 7.100-7.105 MHz, or 3.585-3.600 MHz segments.
(c) Except for channels specified in section 97.303(h), a station may be automatically controlled while transmitting a RTTY or data emission on any other frequency authorized for such emission types provided that:
The station is responding to interrogation by a station under local or remote control; and
No transmission from the automatically controlled station occupies a bandwidth of more than 500 Hz.
2. Section 97.303 Frequency sharing requirements. The FCC defines users of radio spectrum as either primary or secondary. A primary user always has priority and can be expected to be free from harmful interference from secondary users. A secondary user always must avoid interfering with a primary user and must accept their interference, with no more complaint than quiet grumbling, listening to loud rock and roll or whining to all your ham buddies.
Hams are secondary on 70 cm band, the 33 cm band, the 23 cm band, the 9 cm band, the 5 cm band, the 3 cm band, or the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment of that band to the US Government radiolocation service.
Hams are secondary on 76-77.5 GHz segment, the 78-81 GHz segment, the 136-141 GHz segment, or the 241-248 GHz segment to the United States Government, the FCC, or other nations in the radiolocation service.
Hams are secondary in the 430-450 MHz segment of the 70cm band, the 23 cm band, the 3.3-3.4 GHz segment, the 5.65-5.85 GHz segment, the 13 cm band, or the 24.05-24.25 GHz segment to the radiolocation service.
Hams receiving in the 33 cm band, the 2400-2450 MHz segment, the 5.725-5.875 GHz segment, the 1.2 cm band, the 2.5 mm band, or the 244-246 GHz segment must accept interference from industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) equipment.
Hams are secondary to radio astronomy in 3.332-3.339 GHz, 3.3458-3.3525 GHz, 76-77.5 GHz, 78-81 GHz, 136-141 GHz, 241-248 GHz, 275-323 GHz, 327-371 GHz, 388-424 GHz, 426-442 GHz, 453-510 GHz, 623-711 GHz, 795-909 GHz, or 926-945 GHz
Hams are secondary to the Earth exploration-satellite service or the space research service in 275-277 GHz, 294-306 GHz, 316-334 GHz, 342-349 GHz, 363-365 GHz, 371-389 GHz, 416-434 GHz, 442-444 GHz, 496-506 GHz, 546-568 GHz, 624-629 GHz, 634-654 GHz, 659-661 GHz, 684-692 GHz, 730-732 GHz, 851-853 GHz, or 951-956 GHz.
The 60m band is composed of just 5 frequencies ("Channels") upon which hams can operate. As you can see from the table, you can set your upper-sideband transmitter to a frequency 1.5 KHz below the channel. Hams are secondary on the 60m band.
Use this frequency for CW
Use this frequency for USB
The segment from 219 to 220 MHz may only be used for forwarding stations in fixed point-to-point digital message forwarding systems, including intercity packet backbone networks. Hams are not allowed any other use for these frequencies. Hams are secondary in this segment.
Before you start such a digital message forwarding systems or ntercity packet backbone network, the ARRL would like a word with you. 30 days before. And anyway, if you're within 640 km of an Automated Maritime Telecommunications System coast station, you have to let them know 30 days before you transmit.
Hams can't transmit in the 70 cm band north of Line A in the 420-430 MHz segment.Line A begins at Aberdeen, WA, running by great circle arc to the intersection of 48° N, 120° W, thence along parallel 48° N, to the intersection of 95° W, thence by great circle arc through the southernmost point of Duluth, MN, thence by great circle arc to 45° N, 85° W, thence southward along meridian 85° W, to its intersection with parallel 41° N, thence along parallel 41° N, to its intersection with meridian 82° W, thence by great circle arc through the southernmost point of Bangor, ME, thence by great circle arc through the southernmost point of Searsport, ME, at which point it terminates.
Hams are secondary in the 420-430 MHz and 440-450 MHz.
Hams are secondary in the 33, 23, 13 and 5 cm band.
3. Section 97.305 Authorized emission types.
Any frequency hams can transmit on, hams can transmit CW.
You can make a test transmission on any frequency for brief periods for experimental purposes, but NOT pulse modulation or spread spectrum emissions except where those are specifically allowed.
This page shows you, in general, where you can operate different modes. Basically, the lowest part of each band is for CW and digital signals, the higher segment of each band is for audio and image data.
4. Section 97.307 Emission standards.
(a) Don't use more bandwidth than you need; use good engineering practices.
(b) Don't cause splatter or key-clicks. use good engineering practices. Stay in the band.
(c) Use good engineering practices to minimize harmful interference.
(d) Below 30 MHz, if your transmitters was installed after January 1, 2003, harmonics must be down at least 43 db. For transmitters installed on or before January 1, 2003, spurious emissions must not exceed 50 milliWatts and must be at least 40 dB down. A transmitter built before April 15, 1977, or first marketed before January 1, 1978, is exempt from this requirement.
(e) Spurious emissions 30-225 MHz must be at least 60 dB below the fundumental frequency (the frequency upon which you're transmitting, that is). A transmitter built before April 15, 1977, or first marketed before January 1, 1978, is exempt from this requirement.
(f) The following standards and limitations apply (This section is quoted verbatim because it makes no sense to me at all. I don't know what angle-modulated emission is. I do understand that (2) means when you connect your HF SSB transceiver to your computer, that you can't send anything wider in bandwdith than your voice, around 2.8 KHz. paragraphs (3) through (8) are gibberish to me. Maybe somebody could send me an email about this?
(1) No angle-modulated emission may have a modulation index greater than 1 at the highest modulation frequency.
(2) No non-phone emission shall exceed the bandwidth of a communications quality phone emission of the same modulation type. The total bandwidth of an independent sideband emission (having B as the first symbol), or a multiplexed image and phone emission, shall not exceed that of a communications quality A3E emission.
(3) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital code listed in §97.309(a) of this part may be transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 300 bauds, or for frequency-shift keying, the frequency shift between mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz.
(4) Only a RTTY or data emission using a specified digital code listed in §97.309(a) of this part may be transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 1200 bauds, or for frequency-shift keying, the frequency shift between mark and space must not exceed 1 kHz.
(5) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital code listed in §97.309(a) of this part may be transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 19.6 kilobauds. A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in §97.309(b) of this part also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth is 20 kHz.
(6) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital code listed in §97.309(a) of this part may be transmitted. The symbol rate must not exceed 56 kilobauds. A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using an unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in §97.309(b) of this part also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth is 100 kHz.
(7) A RTTY, data or multiplexed emission using a specified digital code listed in §97.309(a) of this part or an unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in §97.309(b) of this part may be transmitted.
(8) A RTTY or data emission having designators with A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J or R as the first symbol; 1, 2, 7, 9 or X as the second symbol; and D or W as the third symbol is also authorized.
(9) A station having a control operator holding a Novice or Technician Class operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the international Morse code. [I Guess that means that General and Extra class licensees may transmit OTHER codes using CW besides Morse?? Why is this here? ~Ben]
(10) A station having a control operator holding a Novice Class operator license or a Technician Class operator license may only transmit a CW emission using the international Morse code or phone emissions J3E and R3E. [I wasn't aware that Technicians were allowed SSB or so called, "reduced carrier SSB" (whatever that is) but not FM? WHy is this here?]
(11) Phone and image emissions may be transmitted only by stations located in ITU Regions 1 and 3, and by stations located within ITU Region 2 that are west of 130° West longitude (just off the California coast) or south of 20° North latitude (central america). [So if you're in the south Pacific, you're not allowed to talk on the radio??? WTF?]
(12) Emission F8E may be transmitted. That's Wideband Frequency Modulation, like we use on all of our Handitalkies and repeaters.
(13) A data emission using an unspecified digital code under the limitations listed in §97.309(b) also may be transmitted. The authorized bandwidth is 100 kHz.
5. Section 97.309 RTTY and data emission codes.
6. Section 97.311 Spread Spectrum emission types.
7. Section 97.313 Transmitter power standards.
8. Section 97.315 Certification of external RF power amplifiers.
9. Section 97.317 Standards for certification of external RF power amplifiers.
Within 50 miles of Alaska, you can call for help using Single-Sideband voice transmission on 5.1675 MHz using up to 150 watts of power and answer somebody that needs help on that channel. You can also test your setup on that channel regularly with training drills and perform equipment tests.
2. Section 97.403 Safety of life and protection of property. -- "No provision of these rules prevents the use by an amateur station of any means of radiocommunication at its disposal to provide essential communication needs in connection with the immediate safety of human life and immediate protection of property when normal communication systems are not available."
3. Section 97.405 Station in distress
(a) Any ham in an emergency can use any radio in any way to attract attention, make known her or his condition and location, and obtain assistance.
(b) Any ham in the emergency suggested can use any radio in any way to respond to the person in trouble and provide assistance.
4. Section 97.407 Radio amateur civil emergency service
(a) You must be a ham and a member of a civil defence organization to transmit on RACES frequences.
(b) if the President's War Emergency Powers under the provisions of section 706 of the Communications Act of 1934 are invoked, and you're in RACES, you can use RACES frequencies.
(c) If authorized in RACES, you can communicate:
Other RACES registered hams or
Anybody else with whom the FCC says it's okay for you to talk
(d) Only these types of civil defense communications may be transmitted
Stuff about public safety or national defence
Stuff about protecting life, property, maintenance of law and order, alleviation of human suffering and need, and the combating of armed attack or sabotage;
Stuff about accumulation and dissemination of public information or instructions to the people requred for civil defense
RACES training drills and tests, less than 1 hour per week, less than 72 hours, less than 3 times per year
1. Section 97.501 Qualifying for an amateur operator license. You have to pass a test to get a ham license.
(a) Amateur Extra Class operator: Elements 2, 3, and 4;
(b) General Class operator: Elements 2 and 3;
(c) Technician Class operator: Element 2. There is no longer an Element 1. That was for novices.
2. Section 97.503 Element standards. Written exams are multiple choice and have these questions:
(a) Element 2: 35 questions for a Technician Class license. You have to get 26 right to pass.
(b) Element 3: 35 questions for a General Class license. You have to get 26 right to pass.
(c) Element 4: 50 questions for an Extra Class license. You have to get 37 right to pass.
3. Section 97.505 Element credit. If you've already got a license, you don't need to take that element again.
4. Section 97.507 Preparing an examination. Volunteer examiners prepare the tests. The VE has to have a bigger license than the one their testing for, exept for Extra Class license tests, which are prepred by VEs with an Extra class license.
5. Section 97.509 Administering VE requirements. You need at least 3 VEs to administer a test. The VEs must meet some requirements.
6. Section 97.511 Examinee conduct. You must do what the VE tells you to do.
7. Section 97.513 VE session manager requirements. The VE Session manager is chosen by the VEs to be in charge.
(a) The "Volunteer-examiner coordinator" or VEC coordinates the test VEs
(b) After the test, the VEC takes applicant information and test results from the administering VEs. The coordinating VEC must:
Make sure everything is right
Send passing data to the FCC and keep it for up to 15 months
The FCC might want to see it, and
Give the person the exam again
Cancel the license of somebody who is asked to take the test again but doesn't show up.
10. Section 97.521 VEC qualifications. The Volunteer-examiner coordinator is an organization who signs a contract with the FCC to be one. Qualifications include:
Exist to support Ham Radio operators
Be able to work in the region proposed
Agree to give tests for all classes of ham licenses
Agree to give tests without discriminating against applicants based on race, sex, religion, national origin or membership (or lack thereof) in any ham club (including their own)
11. Section 97.523 Question pools. The VECs share responsibility for making the question pools. They must be 10 times as large as the tests (at least). Each question pool must be published for the public to see before they take tests based on it. The questions must be prepared by hams with the class of license above that being tested, (except for extra class, since there's no class higher than that).
12. Section 97.525 Accrediting VEs. The examiners must seem honest and smart enough to issue exams, in the eyes of the VEC. Also, don't hire based on who is in the club. And no bribery!
13. Section 97.527 Reimbursement for expenses. If you take a test, you gotta pay, but not much.
Appendix 1 to Part 97 -- Places Where the Amateur Service is Regulated by the FCC
In ITU Region 2, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC within the territorial limits of the 50 United States, District of Columbia, Caribbean Insular areas [Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States Virgin Islands (50 islets and cays) and Navassa Island], and Johnston Island (Islets East, Johnston, North and Sand) and Midway Island (Islets Eastern and Sand) in the Pacific Insular areas.
In ITU Region 3, the amateur service is regulated by the FCC within the Pacific Insular territorial limits of American Samoa (seven islands), Baker Island, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Guam Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Island (more than 50 islets) and Wake Island (Islets Peale, Wake and Wilkes).
Appendix 2 to Part 97 -- VEC Regions
1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont.
2. New Jersey and New York.
3. Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.
4. Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.
5. Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas.
7. Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming.
9. Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin.
10. Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota.
12. Caribbean Insular areas.
13. Hawaii and Pacific Insular areas.
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